Keystone Cramming study guide
By Daniel: BIOENERGETICS: ATP, CELLULAR RESPIRATION, and PHOTOSYNTHESIS BIO.A.3.1.1, A.3.2.1,A.3.2.2 ATP and Cellular Respiration How does a cell provide energy to power its metabolic reactions? Reactions release energy, but many consume energy. How does the cell provide energy to power its reactions. The body uses ATP as energy and it provides energy for the processes in Cellular respiration. It is known as the “energy currency” in cells. It has 3 Phosphate groups, when the end phosphate group is disconnected, it releases energy and become ADP. This creates a repeating cycle of ATP being broken down and re-formed in cells. ATP is being used over and over in the process of CELLULAR RESPIRATION. In the first stage of Cellular Respiration, glucose molecules are being broken down into smaller molecules during glycolysis (the splitting of sugars). This process occurs without the use of Oxygen and only 2 molecules of ATP form from the energy released from a glucose molecule. This is an Anaerobic respiration & it releases less energy (ATP) stored in glucose than aerobic respiration does. In the second and third stages, aerobic respirations take place in the mitochondria, which are organelles in animal & plant cells that produce energy/ATP for the cell. The process happens in the Matrix of the mitochondria. In the matrix enzymes help break down the products of glucose further in a series of chemical reaction, from this carbon dioxides are produced. During the first 2 stages, Hydrogen ions are building up in the matrix and at the third stage, these ions flow across the inner membrane of the organel. As this is happening, an enzyme called ATP synthase is powered, and this enzyme is attached to the inner membrane. It synthesis ATP from ADP and phosphate. ATP is produced as the ions exit the matrix. Tips: Think of Mitochondria as a powerhouse of the cell, it’s like a battery for an electronic device, energy (ATP) in the battery or mitochondria being used to keep it functioning. Aerobic respiration is the process of Cellular Respiration with oxygen and Anaerobic respiration is the process without oxygen. An- without Questions How many layers does the mitochondria have? 5 1 4 2 What is the definition of Glycolysis? Splitting of cells Splitting of tissues Splitting of mitochondria Splitting of sugars What’s the Difference between Aerobic Respiration and Anaerobic Respiration? ______________________________________________________________ Why is Mitochondria so important for the cell? ____________________________________________________ What is the product of Cellular Respiration? ________________________________________________ Answer key 2, the inner and outer membrane of the Mitochondria D. Splitting of sugars. Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen while Anaerobic respiration doesn’t need oxygen. Mitochondria is important because it is the source of energy of the cell, this organelle creates ATP which is the currency of energy for all life. The product of Cellular Respiration are carbon dioxide and water. BIO .A.3.1.1, A.3.2.1, A.3.2.2 Photosynthesis Where do we receive oxygen and food from? Photosynthesis is a process that converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in sugars like glucose. Photosynthetic organisms use sunlight to produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. The glucose made from photosynthesis can be used right away or saved for later. Plants can carry cellular respiration like animals do. The equation for cellular respiration is opposite of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are the organelles where photosynthesis takes place in cells. A chloroplast have have 2 membranes that surround stomata/ inner fluid, and in the stromata there are disks called thylakoids. These disks contain chlorophyll, this pigment captures energy from sunlight & this is the energy that drives photosynthesis. The leaf cells take carbon dioxide through openings called stomata and plants open up their stomata to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. There are 2 stages of Photosynthesis and it occurs in the different parts of the chloroplast. The first stage is a light dependent, this is happening inside the thylakoid, where the chlorophyll takes in sunlight and, water molecules are being split to prepare for the next stage. ATP and other energy-rich molecules are produced and oxygen is being released from the leaf. This is the light-dependent reaction. The second stage is the light-independent reaction (also called Calvin cycle) require no light. It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast and this reaction depends on the energy produced by the light-dependent reactions. Organic compounds (contain carbon and hydrogen, they are used to build glucose and other important molecules) and Carbon dioxide are being converted into organic molecules such as glucose. Tips: - Plants can do both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis uses Carbon dioxide and water to make glucose and oxygen Questions Which one is the product of photosynthesis? Glucose Carbon Dioxide Water Chlorophyll Which part of the chloroplasts absorb light and gives leaves their color? Stomata Thylakoids Vacuole chlorophyll What happens during the first stage of photosynthesis? ______________________________________________________ Scientists supplies plants with water that has heavier oxygen isotope, oxygen-5. Which product of photosynthesis will have this isotope? why? ____________________________________________ What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? Why are they so important for each other? ______________________________________________________ Answer key A. Glucose, it’s the product of the process of photosynthesis. D. Chlorophyll During the first stage of photosynthesis, light is being absorbed and water molecules are being split into smaller molecules. This creates oxygen and organic compounds for the next stage of photosynthesis. Oxygen will have this isotope because it comes from the water and as water come in its molecules are being split creating Oxygen and other compounds. Photosynthesis needs the products of cellular respiration which is water and carbon dioxide and cellular respiration needs the product of photosynthesis, which is oxygen and glucose. If one of either is not present then nothing will be left. 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